Globalized Supply Chains and U.S. Policy

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An important step in overcoming surveillance restricted to products would be the development and implementation of tracking mechanisms, from the perspective of health, of a determined produced good. The intention would be to create techniques and identification procedures of the pre and post-marketing links. Thus, from product food, for example inspection activities, it would be possible to follow the commodity chain unveiling the main and priority health, work and environment conditions present.

Globalized Supply Chains and U.S. Policy

Similar methodologies exist, generally linked to the guarantee of quality of origin certification of a product. There are even traceability systems applied to various commodity chains. In the wine commodity chain, for example, this system is used as an indicator of food security and allows you to generate and disseminate information that would enable you to trace the history of a bottle of wine from the plantation of the grape to the moment of consumption Porto; Lopes; Zambalde, Articulations of social movements in search of health and environmental control of commodity chains are also essential for the advancement of surveillance in health, work and the environment.

The region had been hit by social and environmental impacts arising from industrial projects deployed Santos, The situation mobilized a number of national and international stakeholders, resulting in a movement that enabled the creation of the "Dialogue on aluminum, global responsibility, from extraction to consumption" program, which had the purpose of studying the aluminum commodity chain and "establish new control and monitoring mechanisms for the projects" Santos, , p.

The problems caused by the aluminum chain drove many social and governmental stakeholders resulting in advances from the social-health-occupational point of view. Another example of this reality can be seen in the sugarcane commodity chain in the State of Rio de Janeiro.

Invisible Links

In the face of modern-day slavery seen in this sector, social movements formed a popular committee to eradicate it that, since , has been able to articulate the termination of several precarious accommodations and several other cases of slavery were addressed. This was also due to the increase in the action of tax auditors from other parts of Brazil for the activities of the Mobile Inspection Group. The exposure of slavery cases in the media, and academia, and the public recognition by State lead an important fuel producer group in Brazil not to buy alcohol produced by a plant in this region that employed slave labor.

If, on the one hand, there is a network that generates vulnerabilities, there are also networks to combat the impacts of production, articulated at national and international level. And public participation in continuous and systematic movements of articulation and attention to situations that impact health, work and the environment along the commodity chains is central to popular health surveillance, both to identify risks and to implement actions of transformation of work processes.

Another important issue for the development of surveillance actions is to place a work process analysis even the factory before its commodity chain. Dias et al. By situating this process in its commodity chain, it was possible to identify steel mills with international certifications and handmade charcoal companies with huge exploitation of workers, including children and adolescents, in addition to the destruction of the cerrado and social exclusion of small farmers.

In a same commodity chain, significant differences in employment relationships can be identified. For Mendes and Campos, , the focus on the commodity chain is a way to relate formal and informal sectors the economy. The poor conditions of health and safety in informal work show, in a way, the limits of intervention of the supervisory bodies, who cannot yet look at the commodity chain.

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So, from the commodity chain concept and the discourse of corporate social responsibility, informal workers linked to industrial activities as suppliers, contractors, distributors, sellers and consumers "should be considered as 'partners' and strategic 'stakeholders' also in critical and vulnerable areas of the current labor informality, particularly in the field of health and safety at work" Mendes; Campos, , p Observing the entire commodity chain is crucial to identify situations in certain productive branches, not easily detected by health surveillance, such as informal, children, domestic and slave labor.

Thus, analysis and intervention practices in commodity chains from a public health point of view can bring alternatives for dealing with vulnerabilities, risks, social, environmental, health and occupational damage increasingly acute, complex and problematic in the Brazilian context. Recognize the importance of interventions on all stages of commodity chains requires new steps of identification of theoretical and methodological elements to support practices and ways to performances on the links that constitute them.

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It is not enough to state the importance of monitoring supply chains and the realization of interventions in all links. It is necessary for the academy to help in the development of technologies that can overcome the lack of methods for surveillance practices. Dialogue with the theoretical and methodological perspectives on commodity chains, such as Supply Chain, Global Commodity Chain and approaches of the social sciences can be crucial in this process. The preparation of planning studies and management in health, to create techniques to control commodity chains from the health point of view, incorporating these logistics and management discussions, can contribute to creating new methods of intervention for health surveillance.

Considering the hegemonic economic vision on the theme of commodity chains, public health can develop intersections with this field generating novel transdisciplinary knowledge, including the prospect of participation of social and popular movements in surveillance practices.

Indeed, the approaches of the social sciences have contributed to the expansion of the strictly economic discussion of commodity chains, to the consideration of social and environmental factors. This approach can help in bringing the issue of commodity chains to public health, which has as one of its epistemological pillars the social sciences. Finally, it is necessary to emphasize the scarcity of academic research of empirical nature linked to surveillance activities.

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  • This reflects the gap between the production of knowledge in the academic field and in the state apparatus responsible for public actions of health surveillance intervention. While the State, through its interventionist apparatus, has an immeasurable capacity to produce knowledge for reality transforming actions, the exploratory nature of these actions is not accompanied, as a rule, by technical and scientific bodies of knowledge production in health, such as universities and research institutions.

    Because it is a public act, backed by police power, health surveillance, in most cases, ends in self-absorbed operative acts that do not harmonize with the principles of integrity, action research, intersectionality, and systemic perspective that guide the Brazilian healthcare system.

    In a similar way, the ability of academia to produce knowledge is reciprocal in a scale that is not consistent of social needs of the areas of health-work-environment. After all, many areas of knowledge, such as economics, for example, have developed approaches to analyze commodity chains aimed to prospectively evaluate their market potential and enable better flow of materials, products and people, among other things and the production of knowledge in occupational health and environmental health surveillance has not developed analyzes in that direction.

    This article demonstrates the need for the production of knowledge on commodity chain from the point of view of public health and surveillance in particular. The lack of interfaces between the surveillance and the main theoretical approaches on this issue points to the need for public health to conduct other investigations, including the effect of subsidizing new public policies and public actions of surveillance in health, work and the environment in commodity chains. In addition to the size of the scientific production, the inclusion of this issue on the agendas of training and education in health among the Centers Of Reference in Workers Health and other institutional actors and of social control responsible for surveillance in health, work and the environment would offer subsidies for the broadcast of new experiences of investigation-interventions in commodity chains.

    Adeus ao trabalho? Global commodity chain approach and geography. Japanese Journal of Human GeographyKyoto, v.

    Globalized Supply Chains and U.S. Policy

    BAIR, J. Global capitalism and commodity chains: looking back, going forward. Frontiers of commodity chain research. Stanford: Stanford University Press, Acesso em: 11 ago. A sociedade em rede. Rethinking global commodity chains integrating extraction, transport, and manufacturing. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Irvine, v. Public health surveillance: historical origins, methods and evaluation.

    Globalization and It's Impact on Supply Chains - John Manners-Bell

    Bulletin W. Geneva, v. DIAS, E. Globalization, athletic footwear commodity chains and employment relations in China. Organization Studies Lyon, v. Commodity chains and global capitalism. Westport: Praeger, Psicologia e Sociedade Belo Horizonte, v. Low-wage manufacturing and global commodity chains: a model in the unequal exchange. Cambridge Journal of Economics Cambridge, v. Coffee and flowers: recent research on commodity chains, neoliberalism, and alternative trade in Latin America. Acesso em: 8 maio Just as parents are scared away from baby food by the report of a single piece of glass, so the damage done by sabotage could cause permanent distrust in a given product or manufacturer.

    Hundreds of years ago, attacking a supply chain meant cutting off supplies to a besieged castle or sinking merchant ships. Today, governments can conduct these attacks covertly through proxies. Chinese companies have cornered the market for inexpensive high-tech parts and products. If these suppliers abruptly decided to stop servicing their Western clients, there would be little U.

    Sure, manufacturers would revert to alternative suppliers—yet in countries where empty shelves are unknown, the social shock alone would be highly destabilizing.

    Supply Chain in the Age of Trade Wars - Smarter With Gartner

    Thus far, Western fears—and attempts by countries and companies to protect themselves—have largely focused on China, with claims of hardware backdoors and worries about the 5G giant Huawei. While a government may have no malign intent, local terrorists or criminals often do. For example, a chip may be designed by a specialized U. That means that the company has 1. So does the risk of attack. Software supply chains can be just as murky.

    Identifying every risk may be impossible. And diversifying away from every possible risk would result in crippling costs.

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    • So firms and governments should focus on improving resilience, not just mitigating risk. Disruptions, backdoors, and sabotage might be inevitable; how companies cope with them will make a critical difference. For businesses, that means taking a lesson from militaries, which regularly prepare for different threats—and for unpredictable scenarios. They can also identify which components are most critical and ensure they have a second, safer supplier—ideally one close to home—lined up in case their first is compromised.

      Only in the last couple of years has the electorate finally won. Many of them have been vilified since. But a politician who ignores the modern day les miserables does so at their own risk.

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      Globalized Supply Chains and U.S. Policy Globalized Supply Chains and U.S. Policy
      Globalized Supply Chains and U.S. Policy Globalized Supply Chains and U.S. Policy
      Globalized Supply Chains and U.S. Policy Globalized Supply Chains and U.S. Policy
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